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In press

Czenze, Z.J., Kemp, R., van Jaarsveld, B., Freeman, M.T., Smit, B., Wolf, B.O. and McKechnie, A.E. In press. Regularly drinking desert birds have greater evaporative cooling capacity and higher heat tolerance limits than
non-drinking species. Functional Ecology.

Janse van Vuuren, A.K., Kemp, L.V. and McKechnie, A.E. In press. The beak and unfeathered skin as heat radiators in the Southern Ground-hornbill. Journal of Avian Biology.


van de Ven, T.M.F.N., McKechnie, A.E. and Cunningham S.J. In press. High temperatures are associated with substantial reductions in breeding success and offspring quality in an arid‑zone bird. Oecologia.


Czenze, Z.J., Naidoo, S., Kotze, A. and McKechnie, A.E. (2020). Bat thermoregulation in the heat: Limits to evaporative cooling capacity in three southern African bats.​ Journal of Thermal Biology 89: 102542.


Lund, J., Bolopo, D., Thomson, R.L., Elliott, D.L., Arnot, L.F., Kemp, R., Lowney, A.M., McKechnie, A.E. (2020). Winter thermoregulation in free-ranging pygmy falcons in the Kalahari Desert. Journal of Ornithology 161: 549-555.


Noakes, M.J. and McKechnie, A.E. (2020). Phenotypic flexibility of metabolic rate and evaporative water loss does not vary across a climatic gradient in an Afrotropical passerine bird. Journal of  Experimental Biology 223: jeb220137.

Noakes, M.J., Karasov, W.H. and McKechnie, A.E. (2020). Seasonal variation in body composition in an Afrotropical passerine bird: increases in pectoral muscle mass are, unexpectedly, associated with lower thermogenic capacity. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 190: 371-380.

Noakes, M.J. and McKechnie, A.E. (2020). Seasonal metabolic acclimatization varies in direction and magnitude among years in two arid-zone passerine. Physiological Biochemical Zoology 93: 140-152.

Oswald, K.N., Diener, E.F., Diener, J.P., Cunningham, S.J., Lee, A.T.K., and Smit, B. 2020. Increasing temperatures increase the risk of reproductive failure in a near threatened alpine ground‐nesting bird, the Cape Rockjumper Chaetops frenatus. Ibis doi: 10.1111/ibi.12846 ​


Bourne, A.R., McKechnie, A.E., Cunningham, S.J., Ridley, A.R., Woodborne, S.M. and Karasov, W.H. (2019). Non-invasive measurement of metabolic rates in wild, free-living birds using doubly labelled water. Functional Ecology 33: 162-174.

Conradie, S.R., Woodborne, S.M., Cunningham, S.J. and McKechnie, A.E. (2019). Chronic, sublethal effects of high temperatures will cause severe declines in southern African arid-zone birds during the 21st century. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116: 14065-14070.

Gerson, A.R., McKechnie, A.E., Smit, B., Whitfield, M.C., Smith, E.K., Talbot, W.A., McWhorter, T.J. and Wolf, B.O. (2019) The functional significance of facultative hyperthermia varies with body size and phylogeny. Functional Ecology

Jepsen, E.M., Ganswindt, A., Ngcamphalala, C.A., Bourne, A.R., Ridley, A.R. and McKechnie, AE. (2019). Non-invasive monitoring of physiological stress in an Afrotropical arid-zone passerine bird, the southern pied babbler. General and Comparative Endocrinology doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2019.03.002

Kemp, R. and McKechnie, A.E. (2019). Thermal physiology of a range-restricted desert lark. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 189: 131-141.

McKechnie, A.E. (2019). Physiological and morphological effects of climate change. In: Dunn, P.O. and Møller, A.P. (Eds) Effects of climate change on birds. 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

McKechnie, A.E. and Wolf, B.O. (2019). The physiology of heat tolerance in small endotherms. Physiology 34: 302-313.

Noakes, M.J. and McKechnie, A.E. (2019). Reaction norms for heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity do not vary across a climatic gradient in a passerine bird. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A 236: 110522.


Oswald, K.N., Smit, B., Lee, A.T.K. and Cunningham, S.J. (2019). Behaviour of an alpine range-restricted species is described by interactions between microsite-use and temperature. Animal Behaviour. 157: 177-187.

Pietersen, D.W., McKechnie, A.E., Jansen, R., Little, I.T. and Bastos, A.D.S. (2019). Multi-locus phylogeny of African pipits and longclaws (Aves: Motacillidae) highlights taxonomic inconsistencies. Ibis

Ribeiro, Â.M., Puetz, L., Pattinson, N.B., Dálen, L., Deng, Y., Zhang, G., da Fonseca, R.R., Smit, B. and Gilbert, M.T.P. . 2019. 31° South: The physiology of adaptation to arid conditions in a passerine bird. Molecular Ecology.

Smit, B., Woodborne, S.M., Wolf, B.O. and McKechnie, A.E. (2019). Differences in the use of surface water resources by desert birds is revealed using isotopic tracers. The Auk: Ornithological Advances 136

van de Ven, T.M., McKechnie, A.E. and Cunningham, S.J. (2019). The costs of keeping cool: behavioural trade-offs between foraging and thermoregulation are associated with significant mass losses in an arid-zone bird. Oecologia doi: 10.1007/s00442-019-04486-x

van Dyk, M., Noakes, M.J. and McKechnie, A.E. (2019). Interactions between humidity and evaporative heat dissipation in a passerine bird. Journal of Comparative Physiology B  doi: 10.1007/s00360-019-01210-2.



Abdu, S., McKechnie, A.E., Lee, A.T.K. and Cunningham, S.J. (2018). Can providing shade at water points help Kalahari birds beat the heat? Journal of Arid Environments 152: 21-27.

Abdu, S., Lee, A.T.K. and Cunningham, S.J. (2018). The presence of artificial water points structures an arid-zone avian community over small spatial scales. Ostrich. DOI: 10.2989/00306525.2018.1509904

Cunningham, S.J. (2018). Birds of the arid zones: living life on the edge. Ostrich 89: 297-298.

Lubbe, N., Czenze Z.J., Noakes, M.J. and McKechnie, A.E. (2018). The energetic significance of communal roosting and insulated roost nests in a small arid-zone passerine. Ostrich 89: 347-354.

Mariette, M., Pessato, A., Buttemer, W.A., McKechnie, A.E., Udino, E., Bennett, A.T.D., Collins, R.N., Meillère A. and Buchanan, K.L. (2018). Parent-embryo acoustic communication: a specialised heat vocalisation allowing embryonic eavesdropping. Scientific Reports 8: 17721.

McKechnie, A.E. and Amar, A. (2018). Missing the bigger picture: a response to Beale (2018). Ostrich 89: 151-152.

McWhorter, T.J., Gerson, A.R., Talbot, W.A., Smith, E.K., McKechnie, A.E. and Wolf, B.O. (2018). Avian thermoregulation in the heat: evaporative cooling capacity and thermal tolerance in two Australian parrots. Journal of Experimental Biology 221:  jeb168930.

Muller, H. and Bourne, A. (2018). Minimum population size and potential impact of feral and semi-feral donkeys and horses in an arid rangeland. African Zoology 53: 139-144.

O’Connor, R.S., Brigham, R.M. and McKechnie, A.E. (2018). Extreme operative temperatures in exposed microsites used by roosting Rufous-cheeked Nightjars (Caprimulgus rufigena): implications for water balance under current and future climate conditions. Canadian Journal of Zoology 96: 1122–1129.

O’Connor, R.S., Smit, B., Talbot, W.A., Gerson, A.R., Brigham, R.M., Wolf, B.O. and McKechnie, A.E. (2018). Avian thermoregulation in the heat: is evaporative cooling more economical in nocturnal birds? Journal of Experimental Biology 221: jeb181420.

Oswald, K.N., Lee, A.T.K. and Smit, B. (2018). Comparison of physiological responses to high temperatures in juvenile and adult Cape Rockjumpers (Chaetops frenatus). Ostrich DOI: 10.2989/00306525.2018.1509905

Oswald, K.N., Lee, A.T.K. and Smit, B. (2018). Seasonal physiological responses in an alpine range-restricted bird: the Cape Rockjumper (Chaetops frenatus). Journal of Ornithology. 159: 1063-1072. 

Pietersen, D.W., Little, I.T., Jansen, R. and McKechnie, A.E. (2018). Predicting the distribution of the vulnerable yellow-breasted pipit (Anthus chloris) using species distribution modelling. Emu – Austral Ornithology 118: 166-172.

Smit, B., Whitfield, M.C., Talbot, W.A., Gerson, A.R., McKechnie, A.E. and Wolf, B.O. (2018). Avian thermoregulation in the heat: phylogenetic variation among avian orders in evaporative cooling capacity and heat tolerance. Journal of Experimental Biology 221:  jeb174870.

Stofberg, M., Cunningham, S.J., Sumasgutner, P. and Amar, A. (2019). Juggling a “junk-food” diet: responses of an urban bird to fluctuating anthropogenic-food availability. Urban Ecosystems DOI: 10.1007/s11252-019-00885-3

Talbot, W.A., Smith, E.K., McKechnie, A.E. and Wolf, B.O. (2018). Avian thermoregulation in the heat: metabolism, evaporative cooling and gular flutter in two small owls. Journal of Experimental Biology 221: jeb171108.

Thompson, M.L., Cunningham, S.J. and McKechnie, A.E. (2018). Interspecific variation in avian thermoregulatory patterns and heat dissipation behaviours in a subtropical desert. Physiology and Behaviour 180: 311-323.


Albright, T.P., Mutiibwa, D., Gerson, A.R., Krabbe Smith, E., Talbot, W.A., O'Neill, J.J., McKechnie, A.E. and Wolf, B.O. (2017). Mapping evaporative water loss in desert passerines reveals an expanding threat of lethal dehydration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 114: 2283-2288.


Chambers, L.E., Barnard, P., Poloczanska, E.S., Hobday, A.J., Keatley, M.R., Allsopp, N. and Underhill, L.G. (2017). Southern hemisphere biodiversity and global change: data gaps and strategies. Austral Ecology 42: 20-30. 


Cunningham, S.J., Thompson, M.L. and McKechnie, A.E. (2017). It's cool to be dominant: social status alters short-term risks of heat stress. Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 1558-1562.


Kemp, R., Noakes, M.J. and McKechnie. A.E. (2017). Thermoregulation in free‐ranging ground woodpeckers (Geocolaptes olivaceus): no evidence of torpor. Journal of Avian Biology 48: 1287-1294.

Lee, A.T.K. and Barnard P. (2017). How well do bird atlas reporting rates reflect bird densities? Correlates of detection from the Fynbos biome, South Africa, with applications for population estimation, Ostrich, 88:1, 9-17, DOI: 10.2989/00306525.2016.1219413. 


Lee, A.T.K., Wright, D. and Barnard P. (2017). Hot bird drinking patterns: drivers of water visitation in a fynbos bird community. African Journal of Ecology 55: 514-553.


Lee, A.T.K., Altwegg, R. and Barnard, P. (2017). Estimating conservation metrics from atlas data: the case of southern African endemic birds. Bird Conservation International DOI: 10.1017/S0959270916000307.


Mackay B., Lee A.T.K., Barnard P., Møller A.P. and Brown M. (2017). Urbanization, climate and ecological stress indicators in an endemic nectarivore, the Cape sugarbird.  Journal for Ornithology DOI: 10.1007/s10336-017-1460-9.  

McKechnie, A.E., Coe, B.H., Gerson, A.R. and Wolf, B.O. (2017). Data quality problems undermine analyses of endotherm upper critical temperatures. Journal of Biogeography 44: 2424-2426. 

McKechnie, A.E., Gerson, A.R., McWhorter, T.J., Smith, E.K., Talbot, W.A. and Wolf, B.O. (2017). Avian thermoregulation in the heat: evaporative cooling in five Australian passerines reveals within-order biogeographic variation in heat tolerance. Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 2436-2444. 


Noakes, M.J., Wolf, B.O. and McKechnie, A.E. (2017). Seasonal metabolic acclimatization varies in direction and magnitude among populations of an Afrotropical passerine bird. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 90: 178-189.

O'Connor, R.S., Brigham, R.M. and McKechnie, A.E. (2017). Diurnal body temperature patterns in free-ranging populations of two southern African arid-zone nightjars. Journal of Avian Biology 48: 1195-1204.

O'Connor, R.S., Wolf, B.O., Brigham, R.M. and McKechnie, A.E. (2017). Avian thermoregulation in the heat: efficient evaporative cooling in two southern African nightjars. Journal of Comparative Physiolgy B 187: 477-491.


Oswald, K.N., Evlambiou, A.A., Ribeiro Â.M. and Smit, B. (2017). Tag location and risk assessment for PIT-tagging passerines. Ibis. DOI: 10.1111/ibi.12558

Pattinson, N.B. and Smit, B. (2017). Seasonal behavioral responses of an arid-zone passerine in a hot environment. Physiology and Behavior 179: 268-275. 


Smith, E.K., O’Neill, J.J., Gerson, A.R., McKechnie, A.E. and Wolf, B.O. (2017). Avian thermoregulation in the heat:  resting metabolism, evaporative cooling, and heat tolerance in Sonoran Desert songbirds. Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 3290-3300.


Sutherland, W.J., Barnard, P., Broad, S., Clout, M., Connor, B., Côté, I.M., Dicks, L.V., Doran, H., Entwistle, A.C., Fleishman, E., Fox, M., Gaston, K.J., Gibbons, D.W., Jiang, Z., Keim, B., Licorish, F.A., Markillie, P., Monk, K.A., Pearce-Higgins, J.W., Peck, L.S., Pretty, J., Spalding, M.D., Tonneijick, F.H., Wintle, B.C. and Ockendon, N. (2017).  A 2017 horizon scan of emerging issues for global conservation and biological diversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 32: 31-40.

Talbot, W.A., McWhorter, T.J., Gerson, A.R., McKechnie, A.E. and Wolf, B.O. (2017). Avian thermoregulation in the heat: evaporative cooling capacity of arid-zone caprimulgiforms from two continents. Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 3488-3498.

Wolf, B.O., Coe, B.H., Gerson, A.R. and McKechnie, A.E. (2017). Systematic errors in data compilation undermine the credibility of Khaliq et al.'s (2014) analysis of endotherm thermal tolerances. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 284: 20162523.



Cunningham, S.J.*, Madden, C.*, Barnard, P. and Amar, A. (2016). Electric crows: powerlines, climate change, and the emergence of a native invader. Diversity and Distributions DOI: 10.1111/ddi.12381. *joint first authors


McKechnie, A.E., Smit, B., Whitfield, M.C., Noakes, M.J., Talbot, W.A., Garcia, M., Gerson, A.R. and Wolf, B.O. (2016). Avian thermoregulation in the heat: evaporative cooling capacity in an archetypal desert specialist, Burchell's sandgrouse (Pterocles burchelli). Journal of Experimental Biology 219: 2137-2144.


McKechnie, A.E., Whitfield, M.C., Smit, B., Gerson, A.R., Smith, E.K., Talbot, W.A., McWhorter, T.J. and Wolf, B.O. (2016). Avian thermoregulation in the heat: efficient evaporative cooling allows for extreme heat tolerance in four southern Hemisphere columbids. Journal of Experimental Biology 219: 2145-2155.

Noakes, M.J., Wolf, B.O. and McKechnie, A.E. (2016). Seasonal and geographical variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity in a passerine bird. Journal of Experimental Biology 219: 859-869.


Oswald, K.N. (2016). Observed instances of alarm calling in the Cape Rockjumper. Ostrich 87: 285-288.


Smit, B., Zietsman, G., Martin, R.O., Cunningham, S.J., McKechnie, A.E. and Hockey, P.A.R. (2016). Can behaviour provide a basis for rapid assessment of relative vulnerability of desert birds to climate change? Climate Change Responses 3: DOI 10.1186/s40665-016-0023-2.


Van de Ven, T.M.F.N., Martin, R.O., Vink, T.J.F., McKechnie, A.E. and Cunningham, S.J. (2016). Regulation of heat exchange across the hornbill beak: functional similarities with toucans? PLoS ONE 11: e0154768.


Cunningham, S.J., Martin, R.O., and Hockey, P.A.R. (2015). Can behaviour buffer the impacts of climate change on an arid-zone bird? Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology 86: 119-126.

Martin, R.O., Cunningham, S.J. and Hockey, P.A.R. (2015). Elevated temperatures drive fine-scale patterns of habitat use in a savannah bird community. Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology 86: 127-135.


McKechnie, A.E. (2015). FE Spotlight: Global variation in avian metabolic rates and the slow pace of life of tropical birds [Invited Commentary]. Functional Ecology 29: 297.

McKechnie, A.E., Noakes, M.J. and Smit, B. (2015). Global patterns of seasonal acclimatization in avian resting metabolic rates. Journal of Ornithology 156: 367-376.

Milne, R., Cunningham, S.J., Lee, A. and Smit, B. (2015). The role of thermal physiology in recent declines of birds in a biodiversity hotspot. Conservation Physiology doi:10.1093/conphys/cov048.


Smit, B. and McKechnie, A.E. (2015). Water and energy fluxes during summer in an arid-zone passerine bird. Ibis 157: 774-786.

Whitfield, M.C., Smit, B., McKechnie, A.E. and Wolf, B.O. (2015). Avian thermoregulation in the heat: scaling of heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity in three southern African arid-zone passerines. Journal of Experimental Biology 218: 1705-1714.



Gerson, A.R., Smith, E.K., Smit, B., McKechnie, A.E. and Wolf, B.O. (2014). The impact of humidity on evaporative cooling in small desert birds exposed to high air temperatures. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 87: 782-795.


Jacobs, P.J. and McKechnie, A.E. (2014). Experimental sources of variation in avian energetics: estimated basal metabolic rate decreases with successive measurements. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 87: 762-769.



Cunningham, S.J., Kruger, A.C., Nxumalo, M.P. and Hockey, P.A.R. (2013). Identifying biologically meaningful hot-weather events using threshold temperatures that affect life-history. PLoS ONE 8: e82492.


Cunningham, S.J., Martin, R.O., Hojem, C.L. and Hockey, P.A.R. (2013). Temperatures in excess of critical thresholds threaten nestling growth and survival in a rapidly-warming arid savanna: a study of common fiscals. PLoS ONE 8: e74613.

Noakes, M.J., Smit, B., Wolf, B.O. and McKechnie, A.E. (2013). Thermoregulation in African Green Pigeons (Treron calvus) and a re-analysis of insular effects on basal metabolic rate and heterothermy in columbid birds. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 183: 969-982. 

Smit, B., Harding, C.T., Hockey, P.A.R. and McKechnie, A.E. (2013). Adaptive thermoregulation during summer in two populations of an arid-zone passerine. Ecology 94: 1142-1154.

Van de Ven, T.M.F.N., Mzilikazi, N. and McKechnie A.E. (2013). Phenotypic flexibility in body mass, basal metabolic rate and summit metabolism in southern red bishops (Euplectes orix): Responses to short-term thermal acclimation. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 165: 319-327.

Van de Ven, T.M.F.N., Mzilikazi, N. and McKechnie, A.E. (2013). Seasonal metabolic variation in two populations of an Afrotropical euplectid bird. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 86: 19-26.



du Plessis, K.L., Martin, R.W., Hockey, P.A.R., Cunningham, S.J. and Ridley, A.R. (2012). The costs of keeping cool in a warming world: implications of high temperatures for foraging, thermoregulation and body condition of an arid-zone bird. Global Change Biology 18: 3063-3070.

McKechnie, A.E., Hockey, P.A.R. and Wolf, B.O. (2012). Feeling the heat: Australian landbirds and climate change. Emu 112: i-vii.



Boyles, J.G., Seebacher, F., Smit, B. and McKechnie, A.E. (2011). Adaptive thermoregulation in endotherms may alter responses to climate change. Integrative and Comparative Biology 51: 676-690.


Boyles, J.G., Smit, B. and McKechnie, A.E. (2011). A new comparative metric for estimating heterothermy in endotherms. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 84: 115-123.



McKechnie, A.E. and Wolf, B.O. (2010). Climate change increases the likelihood of catastrophic avian mortality events during extreme heat waves. Biology Letters 6: 253-256.




Oswald, K.N. (2020). Fire and Ice Increase Nest Success. BOU Blog @theBOUblog 


Bourne, A.R. and Cunningham, S.J. (2019). No touching please! Non-invasive physiological measurements in wild animals. Science Matters: Science Faculty Newsletter, p15.

Bourne, A.R., Cunningham, S.J., Nupen, L., McKechnie, A.E. and Ridley, A. (2019). Male and female Southern Pied Babbler Turdoides bicolor nestlings respond similarly to heat stress. Report from a BOU-funded Project

Bourne, A.R. and Pattinson, N.B. (2019). Hot birds in the top end. Promerops 315: 26-27.

Cunningham, S.J. (2019). Hands Off: The proof is in the poo. African BirdLife, May/June pg 18.

Cunningham, S.J. (2019). In a dead heat: Can southern fiscals tolerate any more climate warming in the Kalahari? When the sun beats down on their nest, these ruthless little predators face a terrible choice. Wild, Winter pg 72-75. 

McKechnie, A.E. (2019). It’s hot out here – birds prepare their chicks for warm conditions. African Birdlife

Oswald, K.N. (2019). Rocky Road. African BirdLife, March/April pg 50-54.


Oswald, K.N. and Smit, B. (2018). South Africa's Cape Rockjumper populations are falling, and we're not sure why.




Barnard P. 2017. Climate change, biodiversity early warning systems, and Africa’s future. Africa Conservation Telegraph 12 (1). Published January 2017 available online


Cunningham, S.J. and van de Ven, T. (2017). Cool Bananas! Wild Magazine Autumn 2017: 73-78 available online


Oswald, K.N., Lee, A.T.K., Cunningham, S.J. and Smit, B. (2017). Rockjumpers and Climate Change in the Fynbos. African Conservation Telegraph 2016: 12.





Cunningham, S.J. (2016). Body Heat. Wild Magazine Autumn 2016.


Cunningham, S.J. (2016). Killer Moves –Southern Fiscal. African Birdlife, February 2016.


McKechnie, A.E. (2016). Burchell’s Sandgrouse: not so chilled? African Birdlife May/June 2016: 15.


McKechnie, A.E. (2016). Knot the right size. African Birdlife September/October 2016: 11.


McKechnie, A.E. (2016). Mercury rising - South Africa’s national parks are getting warmer. African Birdlife March/April 2016: 14.





Cunningham, S.J. (2015). Shady dealings. Wild Magazine, Winter 2015.

Cunningham, S.J.  and Amar, A. (2015). How climate change is causing pied crow numbers to soar. The Conversation, 2015. Available here

Cunningham, S.J. (2015). The Hot Birds programme: understanding the risks of climate change for desert birds. Quest 11: 36-38.

McKechnie, A.E. (2015). Melting point – polar bears become nest predators. African Birdlife July/August 2015: 10.


Noakes, M.J. and McKechnie, A.E. (2015) Hot or not? Physiological variation in white-browed sparrow-weavers. African Birdlife September/October 2015: 12-13.





Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology (2014). The FitzPatrick Report. Hot birds go global. African Birdlife July/August 2014: 20.





McKechnie, A.E. (2013). Tipping-point temperatures - the science of predicting the future. African Birdlife November/December 2013: 34-39.

Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology (2013). The FitzPatrick Report. Hot and happening: White-browed Sparrow-weavers. African Birdlife September/October 2013: 18.





McKechnie, A.E., Hockey, P.A.R. and Wolf, B.O. (2012). The heat is on - climate change threatens arid-zone birds. Australian Birdlife 1(3): 38-41.


Whitfield, M.C. and McKechnie, A.E. 2012. Chilling in the Kalahari – Namaqua Doves keep their cool. African Birdlife November/December 2012: 14.




McKechnie, A.E. (2011). Rainy days for the Mauritius Kestrel? Africa – Birds and Birding 16(5): 17.




McKechnie, A.E. (2010). World on the boil - heat waves take their toll on birds. Africa – Birds and Birding 15(6): 12-13.

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